• Research

    The following are not intended to be a comprehensive list of studies as there are many more published. They are categorized under relevant topics for your convenience.


    Allsop DJ, Copeland J, Lintzeris N, Dunlop AJ,Montebello M, Sadler C et al. Nabiximols as an agonist replacement therapy during cannabis withdrawal. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(3):281.

    Loflin and Earlywine. A new method of cannabis ingestion: the danger of dabs? Degenhardt et al.The global epidemiology and contribution of cannabis use and dependence to the global burden of disease: results from the GBD 2010 study PLoS One 2013;8(10): e76635.

    Degenhardt and Hall. Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease The Lancet 2012;379(9810): 55-70.

    Vanyukov et al. (2012) Common liability to addiction and “gateway hypothesis”: theoretical, empirical and evolutionary perspective Drug and Alcohol Dependence 123 Suppl 1 S3-17.

    Levin FR, Mariani JJ, Brooks DJ, Pavlicova M, Cheng W, Nunes EV. Dronabinol for the treatment of cannabis dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2011;116(1-3):142-150.

    Ware MA, St Arnaud-Trempe E. The abuse potential of the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone. Addiction 2010;105(3):494-503.

    Fergusson et al. Cannabis use and later life outcomes. Addiction 2008;103(6): 969-76.

    Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ. Cannabis use and other illicit drug use: testing the cannabis gateway hypothesis. Addiction 2006;101(4):556-569.

    Lynskey MT, Vink JM, Boomsma DI. Early onset cannabis use and progression to other drug use in a sample of Dutch twins. Behav Genet 2006;36(2):195-200.

    Budney AJ, Moore BA, Vaudrey RG, Hughes JR. The time course and significance of cannabis withdrawal. J Abnorm Psychol 2003;112(3):393-402.

    Adverse Health Effects

    Hall W. What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use? Addiction 2015;110(1): 19-35.

    Hall W, Degenhardt L. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use. Drug Test Anal. 2014;6(12):3945.

    Hartung B, Kauferstein S, Ritz-Timme S, Daldrup T. Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis. Forensic Sci Int 2014;237:e11-e13.

    Rodríguez-Castro CE, Alkhateeb H, Elfar A, Saifuddin F, Abbas A, Siddiqui T. Recurrent myopericarditis as a complication of Marijuana use. Am J Case Rep 2014;15:60-62.

    Volkow ND, Baler RD, Compton WM, Weiss SRB. Adverse health effects of marijuana use. New England Journal of Medicine 2014;370: 22192227.

    Deharo P, Massoure PL, Fourcade L. Exercise-induced acute coronary syndrome in a 24-year-old man with massive cannabis consumption. Acta Cardiol 2013;68(4):425-428.

    Fergusson et al. Cannabis use and later life outcomes. Addiction 2008;103(6): 969-76.

    Simonetto DA, Oxentenko AS, Herman ML, Szostek JH. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis: A Case Series of 98 Patients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2012;87(2):114-119.

    Hall W, Degenhardt L. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use. Lancet 2009;374(9698):1383-1391.

    Kalant H. Adverse effects of cannabis on health: An update of the literature since 1996. Progress in NeuroPsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2004;28:84963.

    Hamadeh R, Ardehali A, Locksley RM, York MK. Fatal aspergillosis associated with smoking contaminated marijuana, in a marrow transplant recipient. Chest 1988;94(2):432-3.


    Lynch ME, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Hohmann AG. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial with extension using an oral mucosal cannabinoid extract for treatment of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2014;47(1):166-173.

    Johnson JR, Lossignol D, Burnell-Nugent M, Fallon MT. An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2013;46(2):207-218.

    Massi P et al. Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013;75(2):303-12.

    Aviello G et al. Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabdiol on experimental colon cancer. J Mol Med (Berl) 2012;90(8):925-34.

    Portenoy RK, Ganae-Motan ED, Allende S, Yanagihara R, Shaiova L, Weinstein S et al. Review 18 Cannabinoids  Vol 11, Special Issue  February 20, 2016 Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial. The Journal of Pain. 2012;13(5):438-449.

    Ramer R et al. Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1. FASEB J 2012;26(4):1535-48.

    Todaro B. Cannabinoids in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2012;10(4):487-92.

    Brisbois TD, de Kock IH, Watanabe SM, Mirhosseini M, Lamoureux DC, Chasen M et al. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled pilot trial. Annals of Oncology. 2011;22(9):2086-2093.

    Duran M, Pérez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M et al. Preliminary efficacy and Kowal, Hazekamp & Grotenhermen Cannabinoids  Vol 11, Special Issue  February 20, 2016 17 safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology2010;70(5):656-663. Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer related pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2010;39(2):167-179.

    Aldington S, Harwood M, Cox B, Weatherall M, Beckert L, Hansell A, et al. Cannabis and Respiratory Disease Research Group. Cannabis use and cancer of the head and neck: case-control study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008;138(3):374-380.

    McAllister SD, Christian RT, Horowitz Mp, Garcia A, Desprez PY. Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6(11):2921-7.

    Chronic Pain

    de Vries M, van Rijckevorsel DC, Wilder-Smith OH, van Goor H. Dronabinol and chronic pain: importance of mechanistic considerations. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 2014;15(11):1525-1534.

    Issa MA, Narang S, Jamison RN, Michna E, Edwards RR, Penetar DM et al. The subjective psychoactive effects of oral dronabinol studied in a randomized, controlled crossover clinical trial for pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 2014;30(6):472-478.

    Issa MA, Narang S, Jamison RN, Michna E, Edwards RR, Penetar DM, et al. The subjective psychoactive effects of oral dronabinol studied in a randomized, controlled crossover clinical trial for pain. Clin J Pain 2014;30(6):472-478.

    Ware MA, Fitzcharles MA, Joseph L, Shir Y. The effects of nabilone on sleep in fibromyalgia: results of a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg 2010;110(2):604-610.

    Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D. Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. J Pain 2008;9(2):164-173.

    Lynch ME, Clark AJ. Cannabis reduces opioid dose in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2003;25(6):496-8.



    Hindocha C, Freeman TP, Schafer G, Gardener C, Das RK, Morgan CJ et al. Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;25(3):325-334.

    Cooper ZD, Comer SD, Haney M. Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers. Neuropsychopharmacology 2013;38(10):1984-1992.

    Kowal MA, Hazekamp A, Colzato LS, van Steenbergen H, Hommel B. Modulation of cognitive and emotional processing by cannabidiol: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2013;7.

    Meier MH, Caspi A, Ambler A, Harrington H, Houts R, Keefe RS, et al. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109(40):E2657-2664.

    Karschner EL, Darwin WD, McMahon RP, Liu F, Wright S, Goodwin RS, et al. Subjective and physiological effects after controlled Sativex and oral THC administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011;89(3):400-407.

    Wesnes KA, Annas P, Edgar CJ, Deeprose C, Karlsten R, Philipp A, et al. Nabilone produces marked impairments to cognitive function and changes in subjective state in healthy volunteers. J Psychopharmacol 2010;24(11):1659-1669.

    Gonzalez R. Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on brain functioning and neuropsychological performance. Neuropsychol Rev 2007;17(3):347-361.

    Block RI, O’Leary DS, Hichwa RD, Augustinack JC, Boles Ponto LL, et al. Effects of frequent marijuana use on memory related regional cerebral blood flow. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior 2002;72: 237250.

    Heishman SJ, Arasteh K, Stitzer ML. Comparative effects of alcohol and marijuana on mood, memory, and performance. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997;58(1):93101.

    Pope HG, YurgelunTodd D. The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students. Journal of the American Medical Association 1996;275: 521527.

    Mendelson JH, Mello NK. Reinforcing properties of oral delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, smoked marijuana, and nabilone: influence of previous marijuana use. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1984;83(4):351-356.



    Hussain SA, Zhou R, Jacobson C, Weng J, Cheng E, Lay J, et al. Perceived efficacy of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extracts for treatment of pediatric epilepsy: A potential role for infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Epilepsy Behav. 2015;47:13841.

    Press CA, Knupp KG, Chapman KE. Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory Epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2015;45:49-52.

    Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, Fernandez-Ruiz J, French J, Hill J, et al. Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia. 2014;55(6):791802.

    Gloss D, Vickrey B. Cannabinoids for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;5(3):CD009270.

    Hamerle M, Ghaeni L, Kowski A, Weissinger F, Holtkamp M. Cannabis and other illicit drug use in Epilepsy patients. Eur J Neurol 2014;21(1):167-70.

    Kaminski RM, Rogawski MA, Klitgaard H. The Potential of Antiseizure Drugs and Agents that Act on Novel Molecular Targets as Antiepileptogenic Treatments. Neurotherapeutics 2014;11(2):385-400.

    Porter BE, Jacobson C. Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 Dec;29(3):5747.

    Hegde M, Santos-Sanchez C, Hess CP, Kabir AA, Garcia PA. Seizure exacerbation in two patients with focal Epilepsy following marijuana cessation. Epilepsy Behav 2012;25(4):563-6.

    Wallace MJ, Blair RE, Falenski KW, Martin BR, DeLorenzo RJ. The Endogenous Cannabinoid System Regulates Seizure Frequency and Duration in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2003;307(1):129-137.

    Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology 1980;21(3):175-185.



    Capasso R et al. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide normalizes intestinal motility in a murine model of post-inflammatory accelerated transit : involvement of CB1 receptors and TRPV1. British Journal of Pharmacology 2014;171(17):4026-37.

    Feng CC, Yan XJ, Wang EM, Liu Q, Zhang LY, Fang FY. Vagal anandamide signaling via cannabinoid receptor 1 contributes to luminal 5-HT modulation of visceral nociception in rats. Pain 2014;155(8):1591-604.

    Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: A prospective placebo-controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11(10):127680.

    Cluny NL et al. Cannabinoid signalling regulates inflammation and energy balance: The importance of the brain-gut axis. Brain Behav Immun  2012;26(5):691-8.

    Izzo AA, et al. Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice. Br J Pharmacol 2012;166(4):1444-60.

    Francesca R et al. The Cannabinid Receptor type 2 Q63R variant increases the risk of celiac disease: Implication for a novel molecular biomarker and future therapeutic intervention. Pharmacol Res 2012;66(1):88-94.

    Liu J et al. Hepatic Cannabinoid Receptor-1 Mediates Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance Via Inhibition of Insulin Signaling and Clearance in Mice. Gastroenterology 2012;142(5):1218-1228.

    Schicho R, Storr M. Topical and Systemic Cannabidiol Improves Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Colitis in mice. Pharmacology 2012;89(3-4):149-55.

    Wong BS, Camilleri M, Eckert D, Carlson P, Ryks M, Burton D et al. Randomized pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic trial of dronabinol effects on colon transit in irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea. Neurogastroenterology & Motility. 2012;24(4):358-e169.

    Klooker TK, Leliefeld KEM, Van Den Wijngaard RM, Boeckxstaens GE. The cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not affect visceral sensitivity to rectal distension in healthy volunteers and IBS patients. Neurogastroenterology & Motility. 2011;23(1):30-e2.

    Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablekovitz D, Half E, Konikoff FM. Treatment of Crohn’s Disease with Cannabis: An Observational Study. IMAJ 2011;13:455-57.

    Wong BS, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Carlson P, Szarka LA, Burton D et al. Pharmacogenetic trial of a cannabinoid agonist shows reduced fasting colonic motility in patients with nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(5):1638-1647.e7.

    Alhamoruni A, Lee AC, Wright KL, Larvin M, O’Sullivan SE. Pharmacological Effects of Cannabinoids on the Caco-2 Cell Culture Model of Intestinal Permeability. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2010;335(1):92-102.


    Impaired Driving

    Hartman RL, Brown TL, Milavetz G, Spurgin A, Gorelick DA, Gaffney G, et al. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: Subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships. Drug Test Anal. 2015 Aug 10.

    Hartman RL, Brown TL, Milavetz G, Spurgin A, Pierce RS, Gorelick DA, et al. Cannabis effects on driving lateral control with and without alcohol. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;154:2537.

    Couper, F.J., & Peterson, B.L. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington State. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 2014;38(8).

    Neavyn MJ, Blohm E, Babu KM, Bird SB. Medical marijuana and driving: a review. J Med Toxicol 2014.

    Hartman RL, Huestis MA. Cannabis effects on driving skills. Clin Chem 2013;59(3):478-492.

    Sewell RA, Poling J, Sofuoglu M. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving. Am J Addict 2009;18(3):185-193.

    Mann RE, Adlaf E, Zhao J, Stoduto G, Ialomiteanu A, Smart RG, et al. Cannabis use and self-reported collisions in a representative sample of adult drivers. J Safety Res 2007;38(6):669-674.

    Kurzthaler I, Bodner T, Kemmler G, Entner T, Wissel J, Berger T, et al. The effect of nabilone on neuropsychological functions related to driving ability: an extended case series. Hum Psychopharmacol 2005;20(4):291-293.

    Laumon B, Gadegbeku B, Martin JL, Biecheler MB, SAM Group. Cannabis intoxication and fatal road crashes in France: population based case-control study [correction published in BMJ 2006;332(7553):1298]. BMJ 2005;331(7529):1371.

    Drummer OH, Gerostamoulos J, Batziris H, Chu M, Caplehorn J, Robertson MD, et al. The involvement of drugs in drivers of motor vehicles killed in Australian road traffic crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2004;36(2):239–248.

    Ramaekers JG, Berghaus G, van Laar M, Drummer OH. Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend 2004;73(2):109-119.


    Medical Cannabis

    Dyer O. US states that allow medical marijuana see drop in prescriptions for other drugs, study finds. BMJ 2016;354.

    Kowal MA., Hazekamp A, Grotenhermen F. Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2010-2014. International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines; Cannabinoids 2016;11(special issue):1-18.

    Gallily R, Yekhtin Z, Hanus LD. Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol. Pharmacology & Pharmacy 2015;6(2):75-85.

    Lopez-Rodriguez AB, Siopi I, Finn DP, Marchand-Leroux C, Garcia-Segura LM, Jafarian-Tehroni M, Viveros MP. CB1 and CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists Prevent Minocycline-Induced Neuroprotection Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice. Cerebral Cortex 2015;25(1):35-45.

    Bachhuber MA, Saloner B, Cunningham CO, Barry C. Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. JAMA Intern Med 2014;174(10):1668-1673.

    Calvignioni et al. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2014;23(10): 931-41.

    Fitzcharles MA, Clauw DJ, Ste-Marie PA, Shir Y. The dilemma of medical marijuana use by rheumatology patients. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2014;66(6):797-801.

    Hazekamp A, Pappas G. Self-medication with cannabis. In: Pertwee R. (ed.) Handbook of Cannabis. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2014.

    Husni et al. Evaluation of Phytocannabinoids from High Potency Cannabis sativa using In Vitro Bioassays to Determine Structure-Activity Relationships for Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Cannabinoid Receptor 2. Medicinal Chemistry Research 2014;23(9): 4295-4300.

    Hazekamp A, Ware MA, Muller-Vahl KR, Abrams D, Grotenhermen F. The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids—an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 2013;45(3):199-210.

    Penner EA, Buettner H, Mittleman MA. The Impact of Marijuana Use on Glucose, Insulin, and Insulin Resistance among US Adults. The American Journal of Medicine 2013;126(7):583-589.

    Dunn SL et al. Cannabinoids : novel therapies for athritis? Future Med Chem 2012;4(6):713-25.

    Riggs PK, Vaida F, Rossi SS, Sorkin LS, Gouaux B, Grant I et al. A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men. Brain Research. 2012;1431:46-52.

    Whyte LS, Ford L, Ridge SA, Cameron GA et al. Cannabinoids and bone : endocannabinoids modulate human osteoclast function in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 2012;165(8):2584-97.

    Hazekamp A, Grotenhermen F. Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2005-2009. Cannabinoids. 2010;5:1-21.

    Reisfield GM. Medical cannabis and chronic opioid therapy. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2010;24(4):356-361.

    Izzo AA, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R. Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends in Pharmacological Science 2009;30: 51527.

    Ben Amar M. Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;105(1-2):1-25.

    Pacher P, Batkai S, Kunos G. The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev 2006;58(3):389-462.

    Russo E, Guy GW. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Medical Hypotheses. 2006;66(2):234-246.

    Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ, Malibu Y. Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C. European Journal of Gastroenteroloy and Hepatology 2006;18(10):1057-1063.

    Idris AI, van’t Hof RJ, Greig IR, Ridge SA et al. Regulation of bone mass, bone loss and osteoclast activity by cannabinoid receptors. Nat Med 2005;11(7):774-779.


    Mental Health

    Walsh Z, Gonzalez R et al. Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review Feb 2017;51:15-29.

    Rigucci et al. Effect of high-potency cannabis on corpus callosum microstructure Psychological Medicine 2015;27:1-14.

    Sciloli-Salter ER et al. The Shared Neuroanatomy and Neurobiology of Comorbid Chronic Pain & PTSD : Therapeutic Implications. Clinical Journal of Pain 2015;31(4):363-74.

    Radhakrishnan et al. Gone to Pot—A review of the association between cannabis and psychosis Frontiers in Psychiatry 2014;5:54.

    Pietrzak RH et al. Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor Availability in the Amygdala Mediates Threat Processing in Trauma Survivors. Neuropsychopharmacology 2014;39(11):2519-28.

    Saban A, Flisher AJ, Grimsrud A, Morojele N, London L, Williams DR, et al. The association between substance use and common mental disorders in young adults: results from the South African Stress and Health (SASH) Survey. Pan Afr Med J 2014;17(Suppl 1):11.

    Das RK, Kamboj SK, Ramadas M, Yogan K, Gupta V, Redman E et al. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Psychopharmacology. 2013;226(4):781-792.

    Davis GP, Compton MT, Wang S, Levin FR, Blanco C. Association between cannabis use, psychosis, and schizotypal personality disorder: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Schizophr Res 2013;151(1-3):197-202.

    Sarris J, McIntyre E, Camfield DA. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence [correction published in CNS Drugs 2013 Aug;27(8):675]. CNS Drugs 2013;27(4):301-319.

    Buckner JD, Heimberg RG, Schneier FR, Liu SM, Wang S, Blanco C. The relationship between cannabis use disorders and social anxiety disorder in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drug Alcohol Depend 2012;124(1-2):128-134.

    Hazekamp A, Ware MA, Muller-Vahl KR, Abrams D, Grotenhermen F. The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids—an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 2013;45(3):199-210.

    Choi K et al. Expression Pattern of the Cannabinoid receptor genes in the frontal cortex of mood disorder patients and mice selectively bred for high and low fear. J Psychiatr Res 2012;46(7):882-9.

    Dragt S, Nieman DH, Schultze-Lutter F, van der Meer F, Becker H, de Haan L, et al. Cannabis use and age at onset of symptoms in subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2012;125(1):45-53.

    Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, Coffey C, Patton GC, Tait R, Smart D, et al. Cannabis and depression: an integrative data analysis of four Australasian cohorts. Drug Alcohol Depend 2012;126(3):369-378.

    Lev-Ran S, Le Foll B, McKenzie K, Rehm J. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with anxiety disorders. J Anxiety Disord 2012;26(8):799-810.

    Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, Muhl D, Gerth CW, Hoyer C et al. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry. 2012;2(3):e94.

    Manrique-Garcia E, Zammit S, Dalman C, Hemmingsson T, Andreasson S, Allebeck P. Cannabis, schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: 35 years of follow-up of a population-based cohort. Psychol Med 2012;42(6):1321-1328.

    Ruehle S, Rey AA, Remmers F, Lutz B. The endocannabinoid system in anxiety, fear memory and habituation. J Psychopharmacol 2012;26(1):23-39.

    Tambaro S, Bortolato M. Cannabinoid-related agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders: current knowledge and future perspectives. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov 2012;7(1):25-40.

    Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naive social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011;36(6):1219-1226.

    Cougle JR, Bonn-Miller MO, Vujanovic AA, Zvolensky MJ, Hawkins KA. Posttraumatic stress disorder and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample. Psychol Addict Behav 2011;25(3):554-558.

    Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R et al. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2011;25(1):121-130.

    Kuepper R, van Os J, Lieb R, Wittchen HU, Höfler M, Henquet C. Continued cannabis use and risk of incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10 year follow-up cohort study. BMJ 2011;342:d738.

    Cheung JT, Mann RE, Ialomiteanu A, Stoduto G, Chan V, Ala-Leppilampi K, et al. Anxiety and mood disorders and cannabis use. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2010;36(2):118-122.

    Moreira FA, Wotjak CT. Cannabinoids and anxiety. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2010;2:429-450.

    Crippa JA, Zuardi AW, Martín-Santos R, Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, McGuire P, et al. Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence. Hum Psychopharmacol 2009;24(7):515-523.

    Di Forti M, Morgan C, Dazzan P, Pariante C, Mondelli V, et al. Highpotency cannabis and the risk of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 2009;195: 48891.

    Fraser GA. The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CNS Neurosci Ther 2009;15(1):84-88.

    Le Bec PY, Fatséas M, Denis C, Lavie E, Auriacombe M. [Cannabis and psychosis: search of a causal link through a critical and systematic review.]. Review. French.]. Encephale 2009;35(4):377-385.

    McLaren J, Silins E, Hutchinson D, Mattick R, Hall W. Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies. International Journal of Drug Policy 2009;21: 1019.

    Hall W, Degenhardt L. Cannabis use and the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. World Psychiatry 2008;7(2):68-71.

    Arendt M, Rosenberg R, Fjordback L, Brandholdt J, Foldager L, Sher L, et al. Testing the self-medication hypothesis of depression and aggression in cannabis-dependent subjects. Psychol Med 2007;37(7):935-945.

    Moore THM, Zammit S, LingfordHughes A, Barnes TRE, Jones PB, et al. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: A systematic review. Lancet 2007;370: 319328.

    Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, IV AE, Koob GF, Olson AJ, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD. A Molecular Link between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology. Mol Pharm 2006;3(6):773-777.

    Arseneault L, Cannon M, Witton J, Murray RM. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. Br J Psychiatry 2004;184:110-117.

    Dannon PN, Lowengrub K, Amiaz R, Grunhaus L, Kotler M. Comorbid cannabis use and panic disorder: short term and long term follow up study. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004;19(2):97-101.

    Hall W, Degenhardt L, Teesson M. Cannabis use and psychotic disorders: an update. Drug and Alcohol Review 2004;23: 433443.


    Multiple Sclerosis

    Langford RM, Mares J, Novotna A, Vachova M, Novakova I, Notcutt W et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology. 2013;260(4):984-997.

    Serpell MG, Notcutt W, Collin C. Sativex long-term use: an open-label trial in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2013;260(1):285-295.

    Zajicek JP, Ball S, Wright D, Vickery J, Nunn A, Miller D et al. Effect of dronabinol on progression in progressive multiple sclerosis (CUPID): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Neurology. 2013;12(9):857-865.

    Corey-Bloom J, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Jin S, Marcotte TD, Bentley H, et al. Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. CMAJ 2012;184(10):1143-1150.

    Notcutt W, Langford R, Davies P, Ratcliffe S, Potts R. A placebo-controlled, parallel-group, randomized withdrawal study of subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis who are receiving long-term Sativex® (nabiximols). Multiple Sclerosis Journal. 2012;18(2):219-228.

    Kavia R, De Ridder D, Constantinescu C, Stott C, Fowler C. Randomized controlled trial of Sativex to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis. 2010;16(11):1349-1359.

    Aragona M, Onesti E, Tomassini V, Conte A, Gupta S, Gilio F, et al. Psychopathological and cognitive effects of therapeutic cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Clin Neuropharmacol 2009;32(1):41-47.

    Barnes MP. Sativex: clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2006;7(5):607-615.

    Zajicek JP, Hobart JC, Slade A, Barnes D, Mattison PG. MUltiple Sclerosis and Extract of Cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2012; 83(11):1125-1132.

    Novotna A, Mares J, Ratcliffe S, Novakova I, Vachova M, Zapletalova O et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, enriched-design study of nabiximols* (Sativex®), as add-on therapy, in subjects with refractory spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. European Journal of Neurology. 2011;18(9):1122-1131.

    Collin C, Ehler E, Waberzinek G, Alsindi Z, Davies P, Powell K et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of Sativex, in subjects with  symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Neurological Research.  2010;32(5):451-459.

    Neuropathic Pain

    Chagas MHN, Zuardi AW, Tumas V, Pena- Pereira MA, Sobreira ET, Bergamaschi MM et al. Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory doubleblind trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2014;28(11):1088-1098.

    Fagan SG, Campbell VA. Review: The influence of cannabinoids on generic traits of neurodegeneration. British Journal of Pharmacology 2014;171(6):1347-1360.

    Fishbein-Kaminietsky M, Gafni M, Sarne Y. Ultralow doses of cannabinoid drugs protect the mouse brain from inflammation-induced cognitive damage. J Neurosci Res 2014:92(12):1669-77.

    Fujii M et al. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Journal of Neurological Sciences 2014;342(1-2):101-6.

    Lotan I, Treves TA, Roditi Y, Dialdetti R. Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson Disease : an open-label observational study. Clin Neuropharmacol 2014;37(2):41-4.

    Serpell M, Ratcliffe S, Hovorka J, Schofield M, Taylor L, Lauder H et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment. EJP. 2014;18(7):999-1012.

    Silvani, Berteotti, Bastianini, Lo Martire et al. Multiple sleep alterations in mice lacking cannabinoid type 1 receptors. PLoS One  2014;9(2):e89432.

    Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Deutsch R, Gouaux B, Sakai S, Donaghe H. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain. J Pain 2013;14(2):136-148.

    Toth C, Mawani S, Brady S, Chan C, Liu C, Mehina E, et al. An enriched-enrolment, randomized withdrawal, flexible-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel assignment efficacy study of nabilone as adjuvant in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain 2012;153(10):2073-2082.

    Bestard JA, Toth CC. An open-label comparison of nabilone and gabapentin as adjuvant therapy or monotherapy in the management of neuropathic pain in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Pain Pract 2011;11(4):353-368.

    Rintala DH, Fiess RN, Tan G, Holmes SA, Bruel BM. Effect of dronabinol on central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2010; 89(10):840-848.

    Selvarajah D, Gandhi R, Emery CJ, Tesfaye S. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of cannabis-based medicinal product (Sativex) in painful diabetic neuropathy: depression is a major confounding factor. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):128-130.

    Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, et al. Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2010;182(14):e694-e701.

    Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, et al. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009;34(3):672-680.

    Namaka M, Leong C, Grossberndt A, Klowak M, Turcotte D, Esfahani F, et al. A treatment algorithm for neuropathic pain: an update. Consult Pharm 2009;24(12):885-902.

    Frank B, Serpell MG, Hughes J, Matthews JN, Kapur D. Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study. BMJ 2008;336(7637):199-201.

    Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Tsodikov A, Millman J, Bentley H, Gouaux B, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. J Pain 2008;9(6):506-521.

    Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, Reda H, Press S, et al. Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2007;68(7):515-521.


    Callaghan RC, Allebeck P, Sidorchuk A. Marijuana use and risk of lung cancer: a 40-year cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 2013;24(10):1811-1820.

    Pickering EE, Semple SJ, Nazir MS, Murphy K, Snow TM, Cummin AR et al. Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: a pilot study of efficacy and safety. Chronic Respiratory Disease. 2011;8(2):109-118.

    Reid PT, Macleod J, Robertson JR. Cannabis and the lung. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2010;40(4):328-333.

    Aldington S, Harwood M, Cox B, Weatherall M, Beckert L, Hansell A, et al. Cannabis and Respiratory Disease Research Group. Cannabis use and risk of lung cancer: a case-control study. Eur Respir J 2008;31:280-286.

    Aldington S, Williams M, Nowitz M, Weatherall M, Pritchard A, McNaughton A, Robinson G, Beasley R. Effects of cannabis on pulmonary structure, function and symptoms. Thorax. 2007;62:1058-1063.

    Taylor DR, Poulton R, Moffitt T, Ramankutty P, Sears M. The respiratory effects of cannabis dependence in young adults. Addiction 2000;95(11):1669–1677.


    Smoking Marijuana

    Bowes et al. Lifecourse SEP and tobacco and cannabis use European Journal of Public Health 2013;23(2): 322-7.

    Tetrault JM, Crothers K, Moore BA, Mehta R, Concato J, Fiellin DA. Effects of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007;167: 221228.



    Herrmann, E. S., Cone, E. J., Mitchell, J. M., Bigelow, G. E., LoDico, C., Flegel, R., & Vandrey, R. Nonsmoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke II: effect of room ventilation on the physiological, subjective, and behavioral/cognitive effects. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2015;151:194–202.

    Pickering EE, Semple SJ, Nazir MS, Murphy K, Snow TM, Cummin AR et al. Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: a pilot study of efficacy and safety. Chronic Respiratory Disease. 2011;8(2):109-118.

    Röhrich, J., Schimmel, I., Zörntlein, S., Becker, J., Drobnik, S., Kaufmann, T., Urban, R. Concentrations of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9—Carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in Blood and Urine After Passive Exposure to Cannabis Smoke in a Coffee Shop. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 2010;34(4):196-203.

    Abrams, D. I., Vizoso, H. P., Shade, S. B., Jay, C., Kelly, M. E., & Benowitz, N. L. (2007). Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2007;82(5):572–578.

    Hazekamp, A., Ruhaak, R., Zuurman, L., van Gerven, J., & Verpoorte, R. Evaluation of a vaporizing device (Volcano®) for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2006;95(6):1308–1317.

    Hashibe, M., Straif, K., Tashkin, D. P., Morgenstern, H., Greenland, S., & Zhang, Z.-F. (2005). Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk. Alcohol 2005;35(3):265–275.

    Melamede, R. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic. Harm Reduction Journal 2005;2:21.

    Niedbala, R. S., Kardos, K. W., Fritch, D. F., Kunsman, K. P., Blum, K. A., Newland, G. A., Cone, E. J. Passive Cannabis Smoke Exposure and Oral Fluid Testing. II. Two Studies of Extreme Cannabis Smoke Exposure in a Motor Vehicle. Journal of Analytical Toxicology  2005;29(7), 607–615.

    Gieringer, D., St. Laurent, J., & Goodrich, S. Cannabis vaporizer combines efficient delivery of THC with effective suppression of pyrolytic compounds. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics  2004;4(1):7–27.

    Niedbala, S., Kardos, K., Salamone, S., Fritch, D., Bronsgeest, M., & Cone, E. J. Passive Cannabis Smoke Exposure and Oral Fluid Testing. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 2004;28(7), 546–552.


    Sheikh HU, Mathew PG. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: updates and new perspectives. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2014;18(5):414.

    Thomas G, Kloner RA, Rezkalla S. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know. Am J Cardiol 2014;113(1):187-190.

    Wolff V, Lauer V, Rouyer O, Sellal F, Meyer N, Raul JS, et al. Cannabis use, ischemic stroke, and multifocal intracranial vasoconstriction: a prospective study in 48 consecutive young patients. Stroke 2011;42(6):1778-1780.


    Porath-Waller, A., Notarandrea, R., & Vaccarino, F. Young brains on cannabis: It’s time to clear the smoke. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2015

    Silins et al. Young adult sequelae of adolescent cannabis use: an integrative analysis The Lancet Psychiatry 2014;1(4): 286-93.

    Chadwick et al. Cannabis use during adolescent development: susceptibility to psychiatric illness Frontiers in Psychiatry 2013;4:129.

    Degenhardt L, Coffey C, Romaniuk H, Swift W, Carlin JB, Hall WD, et al. The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood. Addiction 2013;108(1):124-133.

    Wong SS, Zhou B, Goebert D, Hishinuma ES. The risk of adolescent suicide across patterns of drug use: a nationally representative study of high school students in the United States from 1999 to 2009. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013;48(10):1611-1620.

    Kokkevi A, Richardson C, Olszewski D, Matias J, Monshouwer K, Bjarnason T. Multiple substance use and self-reported suicide attempts by adolescents in 16 European countries. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2012;21(8):443-450.

    Lisdahl KM, Price JS. Increased marijuana use and gender predict poorer cognitive functioning in adolescents and emerging adults. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2012;18(4):678-688.

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